Glossary of Terms to Promote a Common Language


TAG (Talented and Gifted Students): (Also see Gifted and Talented Children's Act of 1978.)
TAG is a generic phrase used to describe a wide range of students who excel academically or in one or more areas of endeavor. Historically,the identification of such students focused on traditional academic pursuits, such as math, science, or literature. More recently the categories of talented and gifted have been expanded to include those with extraordinary creativity or abilities in a variety of areas, such as music, art, and athletics. These expanding definitions of giftedness reflect the recognition of the importance of individual differences and abilities. It also reflects a changing view of the traditional limited definition of intelligence to include multiple intelligences. The identification of talented and gifted students (is always somewhat problematic, but) usually involves some combination of teacher recommendations, student performance assessments, and standardized assessment procedures.

target dates:
Dates by which activities in the objective must be accomplished.

A goal-directed assessment activity or project which prescribes that the student use their background knowledge and acquired skills and research to solve complex problems or answer a multi-faceted question.

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (also see Bloom's Taxonomy):
Benjamin Bloom of the University of Chicago developed The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Cognitive Domain.

The six objectives (or levels) of Bloom's Taxonomy are:

  1. Knowledge. Recalling or remembering specific items of information or facts without necessarily understanding or connecting them to larger intellectual structures.
  2. Comprehension. An understanding of material being communicated.
  3. Application. Using an idea, information, or skill in a particular context.
  4. Analysis. Breaking and separating a whole into its component parts
  5. Synthesis. Creating something new by combining different elements.
  6. Evaluation. Judging the merit of ideas, procedures, or materials in light of some criteria.

Certified person below the rank of Superintendent.

teaching strategies:
Teaching strategies are the approaches or methods teachers use to ensure student learning. Broadly speaking, teaching strategies can be divided into two large categories: direct and indirect instruction. Direct instruction tends to be teacher-centered and is exemplified by lecture, class discussion, and related means of whole-class instruction. Indirect strategies tend to shift focus to the student. Examples of indirect instruction include cooperative learning, project methods, discovery learning, and learning centers.

team building:
Processes and experiences done collectively for the purpose of constructing and strengthening relationships between and among groups of individuals who have a common task and who need each other to accomplish it.

team teaching:
Team teaching is a system of instructional organization in which two or more teachers work collaboratively to plan, teach, and assess a curriculum to students.

The means by which a message is conveyed including but not limited to computers. Telephones and televisions, for example, are included in technology.

Tech Prep, also see School-To-Work:
The federal initiative that provides the school-based model for School-to-Work (STW) programs. It should be noted that tech prep prepares students for technically demanding jobs or advanced studies; therefore, it is not merely a program for "work-bound kids." It encompasses a sequential program of study involving applied academics, integration of academic and vocational course content, articulated programs linking the last two (or all four) years of high school with two or more years of post-secondary education and training, as well as career guidance for students.

Ten Common Principles:
The Ten Common Principles are a set of ideas that Essential Schools hold in common and guide their work in reform. The principles need to be interpreted by each school community so they make sense in that local context. They are: Help students "learn to use their minds well."

Emphasize depth over breadth.
Apply goals to all students.
Personalize teaching and learning.
Embrace the metaphor "student-as-worker."
Require students to demonstrate mastery through exhibition.
Stress unanxious expectation, trust, and decency.
Consider teachers as generalists with a commitment to the entire school.
Develop budgets that reflect Coalition of Essential School priorities.
Model democratic and equitable practices.

TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages):
TESOL is a professional association of teachers, administrators, researchers and others concerned with promoting scholarship, the dissemination of information,and strengthening of instruction and research in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages and dialects.

A set of questions or situations designed to permit a student to demonstrate knowledge in an area of study.

The essential idea of a topic of information that incorporates many specific pieces.

think alouds:
A strategy in which the teacher models the cognitive process of reading comprehension.

thinking processes:
A relatively complex sequence of thinking skills.

  1. Concept formation: organizing information about an entity and associating that information with a label (word).
  2. Principle formation: recognizing a relationship between or among concepts.
  3. Comprehending: generating meaning or understanding by relating new information to prior knowledge.
  4. Problem solving: analyzing and resolving a perplexing or difficult situation.
  5. Decision making: selecting from among alternatives.
  6. Research: conducting scientific inquiry.
  7. Composing: developing a product, which may be written, musical, mechanical, or artistic.
  8. Oral discourse: talking with other people.

3W2H strategy: A prereading strategy for all content areas where the student answers these questions:

W1: What is your question?
W2: What do you already know about the topic?
W3: Where can you find the answers:
H1: How are you going to record your ideas?
H2: How are you going to share your findings?

Placement on evaluation schedule based on years in Danbury, tenure, and/or part performance evaluation.

Dates by which activities in the objective must be accomplished.

Title I:
Title I: Helping Disadvantaged Students Meet High Standards (formerly Chapter 1),reauthorized under The Improving America's Schools Act of 1994, supports programs to assist economically disadvantaged and at-risk students.Unlike Chapter 1, the newly reauthorized Title I makes clear that limited English proficient students are eligible for services on the same basis as other students.

Title II:
Title II (Eisenhower Grants) Dwight D. Eisenhower Professional Development Program of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 funds professional development,particularly in the areas of mathematics and science. Funds can be used to provide training to teachers who work with limited English proficient students.

Title VII:
The Bilingual Education Act,Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1968,established federal policy for bilingual education for economically disadvantaged language minority students, allocated funding for innovative programs, and recognized the unique educational disadvantages faced by non-English speaking students. Reauthorized in 1994 as part of the Improving America's Schools Act, Title VII's new provisions restructured Title VII grants, increased the state role, gave priority to applicants seeking to develop bilingual proficiency, and opened up Title I to limited English proficient students.

A category of study that implies a body of related facts to be learned.

topical theme:
A topic of study that does not include a concept in the title. A topical theme frames a fact-based study.

total quality management:
TOM is a theory of process improvement conceived in the 1930s by the American industrial psychologist W. Edwards Deming. The goal of TQM is to enhance the quality of the process leading to a given product,and, in so doing, enhance customer satisfaction.

Tourette's Syndrome:
The essential features of this disorder are multiple tics and one or more vocal tics. There may be concurrent obsessions (unwanted thoughts),compulsions (repetitive behaviors), hyperactivity, distractibility and impulsivity. Social discomfort, shame, self-consciousness, and depressed mood are the frequent consequences of Tourette's.

Total Physical Response (TPR)is a language learning approach based on the relationship between language and its physical representation or execution. Emphasizes the use of physical activity for increasing meaningful learning opportunities and language retention. A TPR lesson involves a detailed series of consecutive actions accompanied by a series of commands or instructions given by the teacher. Students respond by listening and performing the appropriate actions.

tracking (also see Ability Grouping):
Tracking is a system of organizing students for instruction on the basis of achievement or ability level. It is found in the form of ability grouping within,among, or by classrooms at the elementary level. A typical secondary tracking system involves three loosely configured tracks of college-bound courses, general high school courses, and vocational/technical courses.

traumatic brain injury:
An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, including: cognition,language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment,problem-solving, sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities, that adversely affects a person's educational performance and behavior.

transitional bilingual education (TBE):
TBE, also known as early-exit bilingual education is, an instructional program in which subjects are taught in two languages-English and the native language of the limited-English proficient (LEP) students-and English is taught as a second language. English language skills, grade promotion and graduation requirements are emphasized. The primary purpose of these programs is to facilitate the LEP student's transition to an all-English instructional environment while receiving academic subject instruction in the native language to the extent necessary.Transitional bilingual education programs vary in the amount of native language instruction provided and duration on the program.

Triads (groups of three) and dyads (pairs) are often used to divide a large group into small units to accomplish a particular task.

trust building:
A process that aims to increase reliance on the integrity, character, and/or abilities of the members of a group and increases confidence in their ability to care for one another.

tuition tax credits, also see Vouchers:
Tuition tax credits are a part of the educational choice proposals that seek to reimburse parents who choose to send their children to private or parochial schools. The methods of reimburse mentare either in the form of reduced tax bills or increased refunds.

two-way bilingual education: See dual language program.


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