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Glossary of Terms to Promote a Common Language
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OBEMLA (The Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs):
In the U.S. Department of Education was established in 1974 by Congress to help school districts meet their responsibility to provide an equal education opportunity to limited English proficient students.

objective:
Precise statements, which specify the performance or behavior, a student is to demonstrate relative to a knowledge or skill.

objective data collection form:
See Observation and Data Collection form.

objective-setting evaluation:
A process by which specific tasks are defined and assessed:

(a) Mutual, with evaluator participation
(b) Independent, self-directed.

observation:
A method through which the evaluator collects data.

observation and data collection report form:
Form used to connect observation to final evaluation.

Observational Survey:
An assessment tool developed by Marie Clay designed for use with emerging readers. It includes letter identification, Concepts about Print, word recognition, writing vocabulary, and dictation.

OCR (Office of Civil Rights):
OCR, U.S. Department of Education, has responsibility for enforcing Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. OCR investigates allegations of civil rights violations and initiates investigations of compliance with federal civil rights laws in schools that serve special student populations, including language minority students. The office has developed an outline of a model plan that spells out the elements that an alternative language program must include to meet federal guidelines.

on-demand assessment:
Assessments that are required at a specific time and place. Most large-scale, standardized tests are "on-demand".

onsets and rimes:
Onsets are the letter or letter clusters before a vowel in a word or syllable. Rimes are the vowel and remaining letter sounds in a word or syllable. Ex.: cat: onset is /k/ and the rime is /at/.

open-ended:
A question or task for which there is not a single correct answer or solution path. Although there is not a single, expected answer, effective responses to open-ended questions or tasks must meet identified criteria. For example, the response must be justified, reasoning explained, text references cited,etc.

Oppositional Deficit Disorder (ODD):
A reoccurring pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures.

oral-motor weakness:
A term used to describe difficulty moving or controlling the muscles in the mouth area needed for chewing, swallowing and speaking.

orthographic awareness:
Knowing that letters and diacritics represent the spoken language;attending to predictable and frequent spelling patterns. (A diacritic is a mark, such as the cedilla of façade or the acute accents of résumé, added to a letter to indicate a special phonetic value or distinguish words that are otherwise graphically identical.)

orthography:
A method of representing spoken language by letters and diacritical marks, spelling.

other health impairment:
Having limited strength,vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment and is due to chronic or acute health problems.

outcome:
A general goal statement specifying desired knowledge, skills/processes, and attitudes to be developed as a result of educational experiences. A learning outcome addresses the content of one or more State Goal(s) for Learning; is broader in focus than a learning objective; probes the range and depth of thinking skills appropriate to the State Goal(s) for Learning; is amenable to assessment; may integrate Fundamental Learning Areas; and may reflect problems and tasks found outside the classroom.

outside-in task planning:
Developing a task by starting with specific content, process skills,and work habits and then finding a task that is engaging to students.

overall evaluation:
Summative assessment conducted to determine the quality of performance.

overall performance level:
A combination of the cut-scores or proficiency levels of the various assessments used to determine whether students do not meet, meet, or exceed the standard set for a whole learning outcome.

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