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Glossary of Terms to Promote a Common Language
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NABE (National Association for Bilingual Education):
NABE is a professional association of teachers, administrators, parents, policy makers and others concerned with securing educational equity for language minority students.

narrative:
A written description dealing with factual data.

NASCD (New American Schools Development Corporation):
NASCD was chartered as part of President George Bush's America 2000education program in the early 1990s. NASDC was formed with the charge of conceiving the best schools in the world and achieving a quantum leap in learning. Told to ignore the idea of incremental change, NASCD's challenge was basically to "reinvent" the school in such a way as to place American schools and American students in the very forefront of education.

Nation at Risk Report:
Nation At Risk was a landmark report issued in 1983 by the National Commission on Excellence in Education and which sounded the alarm about America's "crisis" in education, initiating much of the current efforts at reform and restructuring. The report also contained recommendations on such things as increased graduation requirements and new courses of study.

natural approach:
A methodology for fostering second language acquisition which focuses on teaching communicative skills, both oral and written and is based on Krashen's theory of language acquisition which assumes that speech emerges in four stages(1) reproduction (listening and gestures), (2) early production (short phrases), (3) speech emergence (long phrases and sentences), and (4)intermediate fluency (conversation).

naturalist intelligence:
The ability to observe, analyze, compare and classify natural phenomena such as flora, fauna, rocks, clouds, and land formations. (See Multiple Intelligences)

NCBE (National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education):
An organization funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) to collect, analyze, and disseminate information related to the education of linguistically and culturally diverse students.

NCTM:
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

NEP:
Non-English Proficient

non-discrimination:
Evidence that differences of race or ethnicity, economic level, gender, or disability do not bias results of assessment instruments or procedures.

nongraded education (Multi-age grouping, multigrade grouping and continuous progress):
An arrangement whereby a heterogeneous collection of students of varying ages (usually a range of 3 to 4 years) is in a single classroom.Children work at their own pace and are neither promoted nor retained.Authentic assessment procedures measure students' individual standards of success. The curriculum and teaching goals are based on both the academic and affective areas of a child's development.

norm-referenced:
An approach for describing a student's performance by comparison to a normed group; e.g., she typed better than 80 percent of her classmates.

norm referenced tests:
A norm referenced test is a specific type of test where the results are interpreted against a group of individuals, referred to as the norm.In essence, on a norm-referenced test, how well an individual does is determined by how he/she compares to the performance of other people.For example, a raw score (simply the correct number of responses) of 16correct out of 20 possible correct answers is interpreted against how other people do on the test. If people of similar characteristics average a raw score of 19, then the raw score of 16 is seen as a low score and below average. However, if the norm of the total group is a raw score of 12, then the raw score of 16 is a high score and well above average. Norm referenced tests are standardized tests that are normed on a large group of people, and any individual score, or sets of scores, should be compared to an appropriate norming sample. Various norming samples are possible, such as samples from various geographical locations, rural or urban settings, age groups, or years. Consequently,the interpretation of any score depends on what norming sample is used.Generally, norm referenced tests are useful for comparing individuals or groups to determine highest and lowest achievement levels, and so forth. They are less useful in identifying the specifics of a person's strengths and weaknesses. This type of evaluation is better achieved with criterion referenced tests.

normal curve equivalent (NCE):
Standard scores with a mean of50 and a derived standard deviation. The use of a NCE is an attempt to make different assessment comparable.

numeracy:
The term used to to describe mathematical literacy.

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